Cyclone Separator

Cyclone Separator


Cyclones or Multiclone are also known as Mechanical dust collectors, used extensively to separate large particles from a flue gas stream. Cyclone Separators are particulate control devices that use centrifugal force, gravity settling, and inertia to collect pollutants. Mechanical collectors can handle high dust loadings.

In cyclone separators, cyclonic separation method of removing particulates is used. Rotational effects and gravity are used to separate mixtures of solids and fluids. Cyclonic separation is a method of removing particulates from an air, gas or liquid stream, without the use of filters, through vortex separation method. The method can also be used to separate fine droplets of liquid from a gaseous stream. A high speed rotating air flow is established within a cylindrical or conical container called a cyclone. Air flows in a helical pattern, starting from the top wide end of the cyclone and ending at the bottom narrow end then the air stream moves in a straight path through the center of the cyclone and comes out from the top. Larger particles in the rotating stream have too much inertia to follow the tight curve of the stream, due to this they strike the outside wall, and then fall to the bottom of the cyclone from where they can be removed easily.

Cyclone Separator is most effective on coarse particles size 20 microns and above. However, for fine particles and less than 20 microns size, the collection efficiency drops considerably below 80 %.

Industry Application
Steel Industry Blast Furnace, Electric Arc Furnace, BOF etc
Fertilizer Industry Phosphate rock dryers & Calciners, Dryers
Non - Ferrous Copper Reverberatory Furnace, Laea Blast Furnace
Pulp and Paper Boilers flue gas
Sugar Industry Boiler flue gas, Bagging section
Mineral Products Asphalt s, stone dryers, Cement Kilns.
Pharmaceuticals Tablet coating etc

Multi Cyclone Separator


Multi Cyclone Dust Collector consists of a number of small-diameter cyclones, operating in parallel and having a common gas inlet and outlet. Multi-clones operate on the same principle as cyclones–creating a main downward vortex and an ascending inner vortex. However, Multicyclone Separators are more efficient than single Cyclone Separators because they are longer and smaller in diameter. The longer length provides longer residence time while the smaller diameter creates greater centrifugal force.

These two factors result in better separation of the dust particles. The pressure drop of the Multiclone collectors is higher than that of single cyclone separators. Multicyclones can deliver over 99% efficiency in dust collection for particles size of 5 microns and larger in size. However, the removal efficiency varies with the operating conditions. The capacity and specifications of the system varies based on the particulate size, air volume and temperature of dust to be collected and other design parameters.

Depending on process and application Multicyclones are recommended for primary dust collection or as pre-cleaners, installing it before Bag filter, ESPs or wet Scrubber. It can also be used as main dust collection equipment depending on process and applications.

Particulars Cyclone Separator Multiclone Separator
1. Dust separation method Centrifugal force Centrifugal force
2. Efficiency 80% down to 20 micron 80% down to 20 micron
3. Outlet emission Can achieve 100mg/Nm3 only for particle size 20 micron and above.
Otherwise it will be in the range of 300 to 400mg/Nm3
Can achieve 100mg/Nm3 only for particle size 20 micron and above.
Otherwise it will be in the range of 200 to 300mg/Nm3
4. Collection of dust In dry form In dry form
5. Maintenance Nil Nil
6. Replacement Parts Nil Nil
7. Temperature of dust media Can be used for high temperatures Can be used for high temperatures
8. Consumables required Nil Nil
9. Periodic Replacement costs Nil Nil

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